Online working of a government or providing its services online to its citizens at their door step is known as E-Governance. E-Governance is E-Commerce technology means online availability of government services. Today’s is the world of change and revolution. Things which are not dynamic are considered as mortal. The rise of e-government has been one of the most striking developments of the web Global shifts towards increased deployment of IT by governments emerged in the nineties, with the advent of the World Wide Web.
E-Governance was started in India by AKSHAYA in Kerala. This project involves setting up around 5000 multipurpose community technology centers called Akshaya e- Kendra’s across Kerala.
E-Governance: Use of internet by the government to provide its services at the door step of customers, business and other stakeholder. In E-Governance, government makes best possible use of internet technology to communicate and provide information to common peoples and businessman. Today, electricity, water, phone and all kinds of bills can be paid over the internet. All this is what government and citizens is using and doing. All are dependent on internet and when citizens depends on government internet services all that come is E-Governance.
There are four pillars of E-Governance:-
1. CONNECTIVITY:-Connectivity is required to connect the people to the services of the government. There should be a strong connectivity for an effective e-governance.
2. KNOWLEDGE: – Here knowledge refers to IT knowledge. Government should employ skill full engineers who can handle the e-governance in an efficient way. These engineers also handle all kind of fault that may occur during the working of e-governance.
3. DATA CONTENT: – To share any kind of knowledge or information over the internet, there should be its database. This database should have the data content which is related to government services.
4. CAPITAL:-Capital can be on public or private partnership. It refers to money used by government to provide their services or to that sector of the economy based on its operation.
E-GOVERNANCE services can be shared between citizens, businessman, government and employees. These four models of e-governance are as:-
1. Government to citizens (G2C)
2. Government to government (G2G)
3. Government to employees (G2E)
4. Government to businessman (G2B)
Government to citizens (G2C):-This model of e-governance refers to the government services which are shared by citizens. Here, citizens visit to the link of services that they want to use. This models strong the bond between government and its citizen. Type of services which are provided by this model includes:-
• Payment of online bills such as electricity, water telephone bills etc.
• Online registration of applications.
• Copies of land-record.
• Online filling of complaints.
• Availability of any kind of online information.
Government to government (G2G):-This model refers to the services which are shared between the governments. There is lots of information that need to be shared between various government agencies, department and organizations. These types of services or information are as:-
• Sharing of information between police department of various state
• Government document exchange which includes preparation, approval, distribution, and storage of all governmental documents is also done through e-governance.
• Most of the finance and budget work are also done through e-governance.
Government to businessmen (G2B):-Through this model, bond between private sector and government increase and businessmen use to communicate. They share information through this model like:-
• Collection of taxes.
• Rejection and approval of patent is also done by this model.
• Payment of all kind of bills and penalty.
• Sharing of all kind of information, rules and data.
• Complaints or any kind of dissatisfaction can be shown by this.
Government to employees (G2E):-This model increases the transparency between government and its employee. Here, employee can keeps a check on the functioning and working of government and government can keeps on its employees. Information that can be shared by this model:-
• All kind of data submission (attendance record, employee record etc) from various government offices is done by this model
• Employee can file all kinds of complaints and dissatisfaction by this model.
• All kind of rule- regulation and information for employees can be shared by this.
• Employees can check their payment and working record.
• Employees can register all kind of working forms online.
Implementing E-Governance without cloud computing and open source is an old technology. Cloud computing and open source is a hottest buzzword in IT sector and we should make best possible use of these emerging technology. There are number of reasons which make cloud and open source technology so famous in E-Governance. Several drafts have also been passed by IT department to implement E-Governance with these technologies so that working, efficiency, transparency and security can be increased in E-Governance.