1) Formulating the Research problem –
Based on area of interest identify the problem.
After discussing with colleagues & seniors so as to avoid repetition.
After consulting available literature on the subject.
2) Study of literature –
After defining the problem, researcher should prepare a bibliography of literature concerning the subject.
Take notes of important things from the literature.
Then prepare a synopsis indicating the basis, object, approach of study.
3) Development of working Hypothesis –
Tentative assumption about various aspects of problem
Hypothesis should be very specific and confirmed to the area of study.
There may be one or more hypothesis for the same study.
4) Preparing Research Design – Research design should be prepared –
Keeping in view the purpose of research (exploration, descriptive, diagnosis & experimentation).
The means of procuring information and availability of skill, time and money.
5) Determining sample Design – A sample design is plan to collect the data as it is not possible for any researcher to cover entire population so one has to decide the number and type of people from whom the data will be collected.
6) Collection of Data – Available data is either obsolete or inadequate, data has to be collected afresh for every research inquiry.
Through personal interview
Through telephonic interview
By mailing of questionnaire
7) Execution of the project – as per time schedule, as per proper system and discipline, as per expenditure decided so that survey work is carried out properly with desired results.
8) Analysis of Data – After collecting the data, it should be arranged properly
Classified into different categories leaving the data which are not useful.
Coding of data into symbols so that it may be tabulated and counted.
After this data should be edited.
Then the edited data are analyzed on the basis of various percentage, coefficients etc to ascertain & verify relationship between the variable.
9) Testing of Hypothesis – After analyzing the data :
The researcher should test the hypothesis on the basis of different tests.
The tests will show whether the hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. If it is accepted then the generalization can be made accordingly. If reject, the existing theory will be revised or a new theory will be developed.
10) Generalization and Interpretation – The testing of hypothesis leads to generalization . i.e building of theory. If the researcher has proceeded without a hypothesis, he can explain his findings on the basis of an existing theory. Explaining the outcomes of research study in such a manner is called interpretation.