1) Exploratory or formative or preparatory Research – Areas covered about which no information is available currently. No research has been undertaken so far on the subject under study. That’s way it is called formative research. Besides building hypothesis, this research also helps in developing new hypothesis.
Study of related literature
Survey of the sources
Selection of respondents
Preparation of questionnaire
Analysis of stimulating cases & events
2) Descriptive Research – Make proper and logical description of the subject on the problem under study for the first time by collecting true realistic & reliable material. Under this type of research the events concerning individuals, groups, society, community are dealt with and described on the basis of sex, age, education, profession. It is not possible to build hypothesis.
3) Experimental Research – The process of testing the authenticity and reliability of the hypothesis. In such a study, empirical facts are collected and the cause- effect relationship among them is established. Based on this, scientific theory can be built.
4) Pure Research/Basic/Theoretical/Fundamental – Through such research, truth & unknown things, functional relation & new laws are explored, new laws are explored, new theories are formulated, old theories are revised and updated and obsolete concepts, principles & theories are rejected.
5) Applied Research – It makes rich contribution to the society by providing solutions to the social problem when collection of facts is made as per requirements of policy makers with a view to use the same in the context of industry or administration, then only it is called applied research. Practical in approach i.e. knowledge gained through such study is utilized directly in solving the problem. It test tools & techniques of research and builds new ones to meet the present requirement.
6) Action Research – Social relations can be made better by means of action research. Coher, Lenim and Coir “action research is a process through which social workers can study and understand social problems in a scientific way. It searches for the factors responsible for social problems and social tensions and indicates remedies for their solution. Various problems of the society such as poverty, illiteracy, child labour are studied under action research.
7) Evaluative Research- A method of research which is used for evaluating effectiveness of a programme in the context of its objectives.
Certainity is impossible due to variable nature of programme.
Lack of understanding and coordination, between programme executor and researcher.
Difficult to have equal amount of rapport with all administrative authorities.
Rural atmosphere in our country is politically charged. It is difficult to get an objective feedback for the programme from the field.
Those responsible for implementing the programme do create several problems.